Fundamental Arithmetic Operations in Maths

The term “Mathematics” simply refers to the process of learning, studying and gaining knowledge through the manipulation of data. Mathematical theories and concepts assist us in understanding and solving a variety of difficulties in both academic and real-life circumstances. Mathematics is a logic-based topic. Students will improve their problem-solving and logical thinking skills by learning Maths. Mathematics is a historical subject, and it has been studied by numerous mathematicians from diverse civilizations around the world for ages. Many mathematicians have proposed many explanations for a variety of concepts that we use in modern mathematics.

Math is present in every aspect of our lives. Everything in our everyday lives is built on it, including mobile gadgets, ancient and modern architecture, art, engineering, and even sports. Arithmetic operations of numbers such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are the foundations of mathematics. Here is a brief explanation of all these fundamental operations.


The procedure of adding two or more numbers together is known as an addition. The sum is the outcome of the addition operation.

For example, one basket contains 8 oranges, whereas the other contains 5 oranges. As a result, we add 8 by 5 to get the total number of apples. We can count forward 5 steps from 8 to add 8 and 5. The plus symbol (+) is used to denote the addition operation. So, the total number of oranges is 13. (i.e.) 8+5 = 13


The process of subtracting one number from another is known as subtraction. It is a technique for determining the difference between two numbers. When a group of objects is reduced by removing a few of them, the group becomes shorter.

For instance, suppose you bought ten chocolates for your birthday party, and your guests ate eight of them. So, you have two chocolates now. Hence, this can be written as “ten minus eight equal to two.” (i.e.) 10 – 8 = 2. The symbol used for the subtraction operation is “-” (minus sign).


Multiplication, one of the four fundamental arithmetic operations, produces the outcome of merging groups of equal size. For example, each group has three ice creams, and there are two of them. So, in total, there are 2 times 3 or 3 + 3 or 6 ice creams. Thus, we can say multiplication is the repeated addition.

The signs cross ‘×’, asterisk ‘*’ and dot ‘.’ are used to express multiplication. The result of multiplying two numbers is known as the ‘product.’ The term “multiplicand” refers to the number of items in each group, whereas “multiplier” refers to the number of such equal groupings.


A way of dividing a bunch of things into equal portions is known as division. Division operation is the inverse of multiplication. Each component of a division equation has its name. In the division process, the dividend is the number that is being split. The divisor is the number by which the dividend is divided. A quotient is an outcome of dividing two numbers. The remainder is the leftover part after a division operation.

In multiplication, 3 groups of 4 equal 12. But in the division, 12 split into 3 equal groups equals 4 in each group. The basic purpose of the division is to determine how many equal groups or how many people are in each group when everyone shares equally. There are different signs that signify the division operation, including ‘/’ and ‘÷’.

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